The protective wall raised up against it reached a height of 16 metres and at its base a breadth of 30 metres. Over the gate stood the Church of the Annunciation with the gilded cupolas which were the probable origin of its name, though another version derives it from the royal Treasury stored in the vaults of the gate, and yet a third from the Golden Gate of Constantinople. The gate was destroyed by the Mongols (so were St Irina's and St George's monasteries), and by the 17th century it was a picturesque ruin. In 1751 a French engineer, De Bosquet, built a but- tressing tower against the remains which were then partly covered in earth to preserve them. In 1832 an amateur archeologist, Kondrat Lokhvitskiy, excavated the original ruins and Tsar Nicholas I who was in Kiev at the time instructed that they should be left just as they had been found. In 1982 to commemorate the anniversary of Kiev's 1500 year existence the gate was restored to its supposed original form, and then only after much controversy.